His family moved to Spain and then to France where Bich was naturalised as a French citizen in  and later studied law at the University of Paris.
Bich was a keen sailor. He funded four campaigns to compete in the trials to select a challenger for the America's Cup in, andand was inducted, posthumously, into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in He was married to Louise Chamussy in After her death in he went on to marry Jacqueline de Dufourq —, divorced and, inLaurence Courier de Mere —.
He died on May 30, in Paris, aged From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marcel Bich. TurinKingdom of Italy. ParisFrance. Retrieved 10 June New York Times. New York. Retrieved 25 February Categories : births deaths French businesspeople America's Cup sailors French male sailors sport French people of Italian descent University of Paris alumni America's Cup sailors America's Cup sailors America's Cup sailors 20th-century businesspeople.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Ballpoint penslightersrazors.The first ballpoint pen had been invented roughly 50 years earlier by John J. Loudbut it did not attain commercial success.
He tried using the same ink in a fountain penbut found that it would not flow into the tip, as it was too viscous. On 17 Junethey filed another patent, issued in the US as 2, Writing Instrument and formed Biro Pens of Argentina in Argentina the ballpoint pen is known as birome.
This new design was supposedly licensed for production in the United Kingdom for supply to Royal Air Force aircrew. Bic has sold more than billion ballpoint pens worldwide. In November of that same year, promoter Milton Reynolds introduced a gravity-fed pen to the U.
Because the Reynolds workaround depended on a gravity feed, it did not infringe, but required thinner ink and a larger barrel. A ballpoint pen is widely referred to as a " biro " in many countries, including the UK, Ireland, Australia and Italy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
BudapestAustria-Hungary. Buenos AiresArgentina. This article uses Western name order when mentioning individuals. Hungarian Patent Office in Hungarian. Retrieved The A to Z of Inventions and Inventors. Unleash your creativity: Strategies for instant creativity. Oxford: Infinite Ideas. PhD Thesis. University of Washington.
Dictionary of Trade Name Origins. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.A ballpoint penalso known as a biro  or ball penis a pen that dispenses ink usually in paste form over a metal ball at its point, i. The metal commonly used is steelbrassor tungsten carbide. Some pen manufacturers produce designer ballpoint pens for the high-end and collectors' markets.
The concept of using a "ball point" within a writing instrument as a method of applying ink to paper has existed since the late 19th century. In these inventions, the ink was placed in a thin tube whose end was blocked by a tiny ball, held so that it could not slip into the tube or fall out of the pen. The first patent for a ballpoint pen   was issued on 30 October to John J. Loud's pen had a small rotating steel ball, held in place by a socket.
Although it could be used to mark rough surfaces such as leather, as Loud intended, it proved to be too coarse for letter-writing. With no commercial viability, its potential went unexploited  and the patent eventually lapsed. The manufacture of economical, reliable ballpoint pens as are known today arose from experimentation, modern chemistry, and precision manufacturing capabilities of the early 20th century.
If the socket was too loose, or the ink too thin, the pen would leak or the ink would smear. He decided to create a pen using the same type of ink. Ballpoint pens were found to be more versatile than fountain pens, especially at high altitudes, where fountain pens were prone to ink-leakage.
Following World War II, many companies vied to commercially produce their own ballpoint pen design. In pre-war Argentina, success of the Birome ballpoint was limited, but in mid, the Eversharp Co. During the same period, American entrepreneur Milton Reynolds came across a Birome ballpoint pen during a business trip to Buenos AiresArgentina.
Reynolds bypassed the Birome patent with sufficient design alterations to obtain an American patent, beating Eversharp and other competitors to introduce the pen to the US market. In Britain, the Miles Martin pen company was producing the first commercially successful ballpoint pens there by the end of Neither Reynolds' nor Eversharp's ballpoint lived up to consumer expectations in America.
Ballpoint pen sales peaked inand consumer interest subsequently plunged due to market saturation. Paper Mate pens, among the emerging ballpoint brands of the s, bought the rights to distribute their own ballpoint pens in Canada. Ballpoint pen ink is normally a paste containing around 25 to 40 percent dye. The dyes are suspended in a solvent of "oil".
The most common of the oils are benzyl alcohol or phenoxyethanolwhich mix with the dyes to create a smooth paste that dries quickly.It was introduced in December and is the best-selling pen in the world, with the billionth sold in September It has become the archetypal ballpoint pen and is considered ubiquitous to the extent that the Museum of Modern Art has made it a permanent part of its collection.
Its hexagonal form and design mimics a standard pencil and it is sold in 6 types of point and 18 colours around the world. Bich invested heavily in advertising, hiring poster designer Raymond Savignac in In Bic Orange pen was introduced, featuring a fine 0. Bic makes this pen at its own plants in Europe. In Septemberthe Bic Cristal was declared the best selling pen in the world after the billionth was sold.
The pen's transparent polystyrene barrel and polypropylene tube show the ink-level. These pens have a white barrel and, depending on what color the ink reservoir contains, a small area of the pen barrel and cap with the corresponding ink color. A tiny hole in the barrel's body maintains the same air pressure inside and outside the pen. The thick ink flows down due to capillary action from the tube inside the barrel, to feed the ball bearing, which spins freely within a brass tip.
This ballpoint is first vitrified by heat, then ground down and milled to an accuracy of 0. The Cristal's design has become a target for counterfeiters, especially from the Far East and in particular from China. One Kenyan pen manufacturer reportedly lostKenyan shillings approx.
InBic marketed a spin-off product named the "Bic Cristal for Her". It was widely mocked on the Internet, for instance in the customer reviews section of Amazon. In Bic released a new writing instrument based on the Cristal, a modified pen with a rubber tip opposite the ballpoint. This model, called the "Cristal Stylus", is for use on touchpads. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 March Retrieved 1 May Fletcher, Alan ed. Phaidon Design Classics — Volume 2 1.
London: Phaidon Press. Retrieved 13 March Retrieved 16 May Rockport Publishers. Retrieved 26 March The biro is used by millions people every single day, but how much do you know about this overlooked piece of design?La top 10 Biro Bic – Consigli d’acquisto, Classifica e Recensioni del 2019
Released in by French company Bic, the Bic pen officially named Bic Cristal helped to change the pen market from fountain pens to ballpoint. Byover billion had been sold - and it's easy to see why, when they can be bought as cheap as 10p, and a single pen can write for a distance of up to 2 to 3 kilometres!
The pens come in four different colours: black, blue, green and red - black is the most popular Bic colour in the UK. One of the first things you're probably thinking when you look at this picture is how unremarkable it is!
Bic pens are a part of our daily lives, it's difficult to go a single day without seeing one! Though this may make them seem boring, it's truly a testament to how well they're designed! The hexagonal shape of the pen is inspired by the shape of a traditional pencil. This shape makes the pen strong and durable, as well as giving the user better grip and stability whilst they write. The Bic pen has a small hole on the barrel, which ensures that the air pressure is the same inside and outside of the pen, helping to prevent it from leaking.
The ball itself was made from stainless steel until It was then changed to tungsten carbide, which is made from fusing carbon and tungsten together at a heat of a whopping degrees Celsius! This chemical compound is almost as hard as a diamond. The streamlined caps of Bic pens are made from polypropylene a kind of plasticand are the same colour as the ink of the pen. The hole reduces the risk of suffocation in case the cap is accidentally swallowed.
The plastic parts of ballpoint pens are usually made using a process called injection moulding. The mould is removed once the plastic has cooled down and is hard. Because the tungsten carbide of the ballpoint is so hard, it has to be filed down by rotating plates that are coated with industrial diamond abrasives, which is a bit like a very hard sandpaper.
The ballpoint of the pen is held in a socke, which it can freely roll around within. Because the end of a pen is so small, it can be hard to see what's going on!A Hungarian journalist named Laszlo Biro invented the first ballpoint pen in Biro had noticed that the ink used in newspaper printing dried quickly, leaving the paper smudge-free, so he decided to create a pen using the same type of ink.
But the thicker ink wouldn't flow from a regular pen nib. Biro had to devise a new type of point.
He did so by fitting his pen with a tiny ball bearing in its tip. As the pen moved along the paper, the ball rotated, picking up ink from the ink cartridge and leaving it on the paper.
This principle of the ballpoint pen actually dates back to an patent owned by John Loud for a product designed to mark leather, but this patent was commercially unexploited. The British Royal Air Force needed a new pen that would not leak at higher altitudes in fighter planes the way fountain pens did. Unfortunately, Biro had never gotten a U. A lot of improvements were made to pens in general over the years, leading to a battle over the rights to Biro's invention.
The newly-formed Eterpen Company in Argentina commercialized the Biro pen after the Biro brothers received their patents there. Reynolds copied the Biro pen within four months and began to sell his product by the end of October Britain was not far behind. Ballpoint pens were guaranteed to write for two years without refilling and sellers claimed they were smear-proof. Reynolds advertised his pen as one that could "write under water. Then Eversharp sued Reynolds for copying the design that Eversharp had acquired legally.
The patent by John Loud would have invalidated everyone's claims, but no one knew that at the time. A very high volume of pen returns occurred for both Eversharp and Reynolds.
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The ballpoint pen fad ended due to consumer unhappiness. Frequent price wars, poor quality products, and heavy advertising costs hurt both companies by Sales nosedived. The Jotter wrote five times longer than the Eversharp or Reynolds pens. It had a variety of point sizes, a rotating cartridge, and large-capacity ink refills.
Best of all, it worked. Parker sold 3. Eversharp was in deep financial trouble and tried to switch back to selling fountain pens. The company sold its pen division to Parker Pens and Eversharp finally liquidated its assets in the s.
The company sold ballpoint pens in the U. Parker, Sheaffer, and Waterman capture smaller upscale markets of fountain pens and expensive ballpoints. The highly popular modern version of Laszlo Biro's pen, the BIC Crystal, has a daily worldwide sales figure of 14 million pieces. Share Flipboard Email. Mary Bellis. Inventions Expert. Mary Bellis covered inventions and inventors for ThoughtCo for 18 years.Under his leadership, IDG transformed from a print publisher to a leading digital media company and the worldwide leader in the technology event and media space.
Before becoming CEO in 2008, he held senior leadership roles of increasing responsibility at IDG, including President and CEO for its business units in the U. He also spent four years of his career at America Online, Inc. In early 2017, Bob was appointed by President Obama to serve on the National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC). Carrigan currently serves as a member of the Board of Directors of IDG. Seth Dallaire is the Vice President of Global Advertising Sales and Marketing at the Amazon Media Group (AMG).
He is responsible for growing the advertising business across Amazon.
He was promoted from leading the North American Advertising Sales business at AMG in October 2014. Dallaire joined Amazon in February of 2012 from Yahoo. This is his second tenure at Amazon. His previous role at the Company was in the Business Development group. Dallaire holds a BA from Vassar College and an MBA from New York University.
He lives in San Francisco with his wife Courtney and son Dashiell (13). Carolyn oversees a team of regional leaders, and the teams focused on global partnerships, global agencies, global gaming, and the Creative Shop. Carolyn also spent seven years at Viacom. Her last role was as Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President of U.
Prior to Viacom, Carolyn held roles at Primedia, The Walt Disney Company and Accenture Consulting. She is the Chair of We Day, United Nations, which encourages and supports young people who are creating transformational social change.
Carolyn is a member of the 2017 Class of Henry Crown Fellows within the Aspen Global Leadership Network at the Aspen Institute. Carolyn is a member of the Villanova University Board of Trustees, and a trustee of The Montclair Kimberley Academy.
She resides in Montclair, New Jersey with Doug, her husband, and Taylor and Kennedy, their twin daughters. Sara Fischer is a Media Reporter for Axios and is phenoxyethanol alcohol author of Axios Media Trends, a newsletter where she delivers smart analysis on the trends impacting the digital media ecosystem.